Umar bin Khattab

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'Umar bin al-Khattab

Masa puncak kuwasa khalifah Umar, 644
Peumimpin Dum Ureuëng Meuiman
(Amir ul-Mu'minin)
Masa neumat kuwasa 23 Buleuën Lapan 634 – Buleuën Siblah 644
Nan 'Umar bin al-Khattab
Gla Al-Faruq ("Nyang jeuët neupeumeuklèh antara nyang jroh ngon nyang bateuë")
Amirul Mu'minin ("Peumimpin Dum Ureuëng Meuiman")
Lahé c.586-590
Mekkah, Jazirah Arab
Abéh umu 7 Uroë Buleuën Siblah 644
Madinah, Jazirah Arab
Jirat Blah rot wië jirat Nabi Muhammad, Meuseujid Nabawi, Madinah[1]
Nyang leubèh away Abu Bakar Ash-Shiddiq
Nyang gantoë Utsman bin Affan

Umar bin Khattab bin Nafiel bin Abdul Uzza atawa leubèh geuturi ngon nan Umar bin Khattab (581 - Buleuën Siblah 644) (bahsa Arab: عمر ابن الخطاب‎) nakeuh sidroë sahbat Nabi Muhammad nyang nakeuh cit sidroë khalifah keuduwa Islam (634-644). Umar rôh cit keu sidroë nibak peuët droë Khalifah nyang na lam gla Khalifah nyang meurumpok peutunyok (Khulafa'ur-rasyidin).

Nasab[andam | andam nè]

Umar lahé di banda Mekkah nibak sukèe Bani Adi, saboh peureudèe bansa ngon sukèe Quraisy, sukèe nyang that utama di banda Mekkah bak watèe nyan. Ayah gobnyan nan geuh Khattab bin Nufail Al Shimh Al Quraisyi ngon mak gobnyan Hantamah binti Hasyim, dari kawôm Bani Makhzum.[2] Umar na nan nyang geubri lé Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. nakeuh Al-Faruk nyang meuareuti ureuëng nyang jeuët neupeumeuklèh antara nyang jroh ngon nyang bateuë.

Riwayat udép[andam | andam nè]

Seugolom neutamong Islam, Umar nakeuh ureuëng nyang that jiseugan ngon jihoreumat lé ureuëng duëk di Mekkah. Ban lagèe adat nyang jipeubuët lé kawôm jahiliyah Mekkah bak watèe nyan, Umar rôh cit neutanom aneuk inong neuh nyang mantong udép ngon ban lahé seubagoë kri ban adat di Mekkah. Lheuëh neutamong lam agama Islam, Umar ka teulah neuh ateuëh peuë nyang ka tom neupeulaku yôh masa dilèe jan droëneuh nyan mantong bangai lam bhaih agama Islam.

Umar seugolom Islam nyan geuturi cit seubagoë sidroë ureuëng nyang galak that mabôk, na padum-padum boh seunurat nyang na bak masa seugolom Islam (Jahiliyah), Umar that galak neujéb arak. Lheuëh neutamong Islam, gobnyan ka hana neupeurab lé ië mabôk nyan meubacut pih, bahthat pih bak watèe nyan golom na neutham keu bhaih hanjeuët jép arak lom lam agama Islam.

Neutamong Islam[andam | andam nè]

Bak watèe Nabi Muhammad ka neuba agama Islam ngon trang lam kawan ureuëng di Mekkah, Umar that na neubanci keu peuë nyang neupeugah lé nabi masa nyan, kawôm Muslim yôh nyan pih neu akô nakeuh Umar nyan sidroë musôh nyang rayeuk keu ummat Islam. Saweub Umar ka geuthèe lé ureuëng nakeuh sidroë panglima ngon teuntra nyang that hayeuë lam mandum prang nyang na rôh gobnyan. Umar pih nget that le neu elanya soë mantong nyang ka neutamong lam agama islam masa nyan.

Bak peukara neubanci keu Nabi nyan keuh bak saboh uroë lé Umar ka trôh niët neuh keuneuk poh Nabi. Meunan pih bak neureuncana buët nyan, gobnyan ka meurumpok ngon sidroë sahabat Nabi Nu'aim bin Abdullah nyang lé Nu'aim ka neupeugah nyang nakeuh adoë inong Umar ka geutamong cit lam agama Islam. Teukeujôt that Umar ban neudeungo peuneugah nyan, ngon laju sigra neugisa neuriwang u rumoh, neuseutot adoë neuh nyang kajeuët keu ureuëng meu iman nyan keuneuk jak poh adoë neuh. Bak riwayat geupeugah bak watèe trôh u rumoh nyan ka neudeungo lé Umar adoë neu teungoh neubeuët Al Qur'an surat Thaha ayat 1-8, that meutamah beungèh aju keuh Umar yôh nyan ngon sigra neupoh adoë neuh sampoë jipo darah. Ban neukalon adoë neuh kaneumoë ngon badan meudarah jiteuka weuëh lam até Umar, lheuëh nyan gobnyan geulakèe ngiëng neubeuët nyang teungoh na bak jaroë adoë neuh nyan. Bak watèe nyan keuh bak teukeudi Potallah meugeunta até Umar ngon peuë nyang neubeuët nyan ngon laju teuka inseuëh keu neutamong cit lam agama Islam. Ban jiteupeuë lé ureuëng Mekkah Umar ka Islam, mandum awak musyrikin nyan jibanci keu Umar ngon hana meubacut pih jihoreumat lé keu gobnyan bahthat pih awaknyan mantong jitakôt keu Umar.

Udép di Madinah[andam | andam nè]

Bak thôn 622 M, Umar kaneuikôt sajan Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. ngon dum ureuëng islam nyang la'én neujak meuhijrah (neuminah) u Yatsrib (jinoë Madinah). Gobnyan rôh cit lam prang Badar, Uhud, Khaybar seureuta watèe neuseurang Suriyah. Bak thôn 625, aneuk inong gobnyan (Hafsah) geumeugatib ngon Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. Gobnyan ka geuingat seubagoë ureuëng nyang that geuseugan lé kawôm Islam bak masanyan, ngon geuturi seubagoë sidroë ureuëng nyang bak garéh keuë sabé geubila Nabi ngon ureuëng Islam.

Wafeuët Nabi Muhammad[andam | andam nè]

Bak watèe haba wafeuët Nabi Muhammad S.A.W. bak uroë 8 Buleuën Nam thôn 632 M (12 Rabiul Awal, 10 Hijriyah) di Madinah sampoë bak mandum ureuëng Islam, Umar pih nakeuh sidroë ureuëng nyang that teukeujôt ngon keujadian nyan, gobnyan ka geutham soë mantong nyang keuneuk peumanoë ngon peusiëp manyèt Nabi keu meujak kubu. Meusuebab ngon nyum teukuejôt ngon han neupatéh Nabi kana lé Umar ka neumeukreuëh nyang nakeuh Nabi Muhammad golom wafeuët, Nabi cit pangsan mantong ngon keuneuk neubeudoh pajan-pajan.[3]

Abu Bakar nyang neudeungo meunan keujadian laju neugisa u Madinah neujak meurumpok ngon Umar nyang teungoh neutham ureuëng la'én, ngon neupeugah lé Abu Bakar:

Syèdara lôn mandum ureuëng Islam! Soë mantong nyang keuneuk seumah Nabi Muhammad SAW, Nabi Muhammad ka wafeuët. Meuhat soë mantong nyang keuneuk seumah Allah, Allah nyan sabé-sabé udép, keukai hantom maté.

Abu Bakar ka neupeuingat bak ureuëng Islam nyang teugoh gabuëk, ngon Umar na lam kawan ureuëng gabuëëk nyan. Lheuh nyan keuh meubarô inseuëh keulayi ureuëng nyan mandum. Meubarô teuingat geuh nyang nakeuh Nabi nyan manusia cit saban ngon manusia la'én.

Masa khalifah Abu Bakar[andam | andam nè]

Bak masa masa Abu Bakar neumat kuwasa jeuët seubagoë khalifah, Umar nakeuh sidroë ureuëng nyang jeuët keu meubri nasèhat khalifah. Lheuëh meuninggai Abu Bakar bak thôn 634, Umar geutunyok jeuët keu khalifah gantoë Abu Bakar, Umar nakeuh khalifah keu duwa lam tarèh Islam.

Jeuët keu khalifah[andam | andam nè]

Bak masa peumerintah Umar, kuwasa Islam ka jitimoh ngon that na bagah. Islam masa nyan ka meuhasé reubôt nanggroë Mesopotamia ngon na bacut wilayah Parsi dari jaroë wangsa Sasanid seureuta lom geureubôt Meusé, Palestina, Suriyah, Afrika Utara ngon Armenia dari jaroë bangsa Rôm.

Ban geusurat lam tarèh, le that prang rayeuk lam seujarah phôn Islam peuta'lôk dônya. Prang Yarmuk, nyang keujadian rab Damaskus bak thôn 636, 20 ribèe teuntra Islam ka geupeutalô teuntra Rôm nyang na jumeulah awaknyan 70 ribèe droë ngon prang nyan ka meuakhé keuh kuwasa Rôm di Asia Ubit blah rot tunong. Teuntra Islam la'én lam jumeulah nyang leubèh dit ka meuhasé cok meunang cit ateuëh teuntra Parsi nyang leubèh ramèe jumeulah jih lam prang Qadissiyah (thôn 636), di binèh kruëng Eufrat. Lam prang nyan panglima teuntra Islam Sa`ad bin Abi Waqqas ka geupeutalô teuntra Sassanid ngon meuhasé geupoh panglima Parsi nyang that jithèe, Rustam Farrukhzad.

Bak thôn 637, lheuëh geukeupông ngon trép banda Yerusalem, teuntra Islam dudoë asé geureubôt banda nyan. Umar ka neubri gunci keu tamong lam banda nyan keu peundita Sophronius ngon 'oh trôh watèe seumayang lé Umar han neutém seumayang lam geurija disinan. Umar neupiléh seumayang diteumpat nyang la'én. 55 thôn lheuëh nyan, Meuseujid Umar ka neupuga lé ureuëng Islam bak teumpat Umar neuseumayang yôh nyan.

Umar le that neupeugot reformasi administrasi nanggroë ngon neukalon ngon lisék that puë mantong nyang jeuët keu hajat ureuëng ramèe (rakyat), Umar ka neupeudong sistem administrasi khalifah bak mandum wilayah nyang ka neucok lé ureuëng Islam. Gobnyan geupeurintah keu peugot sensus ban sigom nanggroë Islam. Thôn 638 gobnyan ka geuparèntah peurayeuk ngon puga keulayi Meuseujid al-Haram di Mekkah ngon Meuseujid Nabawi di Madinah. Gobnyan ka geupeuphôn cit satoh proses kodifikasi hukôm Islam.

Umar geuturi ngon kri neu meuudép nyang biyasa mantong, hana neupeureumeun keu kri udép ureuëng meupangkat ngon meuareuta bak masa nyan, gobnyan neuhudép ban nyang ra'yat neuh udép hana leubèh nibak nyan.

Bak kira-kira thôn keu 17 Hijriah, thôn keu-peuët khalifah Umar, Umar ka geupeuteubiët peunutôh nyang nakeuh almanak Islam jeuët geukira ngon phôn geubileuëng bak keujadian hijrah.

Wafeuët gobnyan[andam | andam nè]

Umar bin Khattab jipoh lé Abu Lukluk (Fairuz), sidroë namiët nyang that fanatik bak watèe gobnyan keuneuk geujak don imum seumayang Suboh. Fairuz nakeuh ureuëng Parsi nyang jitamong Islam lheuëh nanggroë nyan geupeutalô lé Umar. Fairuz ka jipoh Umar meuseubab ngon sakét até jih keu Umar nyang ka geupeutalô Parsi. Keujadian nyan bak uroë Rabu, 25 Dzulhijjah 23 H/644 M. Lheuëh wafeuët Umar, pangkat khalifah neumat lé Utsman bin Affan.

Bak masa Umar mantong hudép na neukeubah wasiët nyang nakeuh :

  1. Meunyoë gata neuteumèe ayéb bak sidroë-droë ureuëng ngon gata keuneuk caci ureuëng nyan, leubèh gèt gata caci keuh droë di gata dilèe. Saweuëb ayéb gata leubèh na le nibak ureuëng nyang gata peugah ayéb nyan.
  2. Meunyoë gata keuneuk meumusôh ngon sidroë-droë ureuëng, leubèh gèt meumusôh keu pruët gata ilèe. Saweuëb hana musôh nyang leubèh bahya nibak gata la'én nibak pruët gata.
  3. Meunyoë gata keuneuk pujoë ngon sidroë-droë ureuëng, gata pujoë keuh Allah. Saweuëb hana saboh manusia pih nyang leubèh that le meubri keugata ngon that meugaséh sayang keugata la'én nibak Allah.
  4. Meunyoë gata keuneuk keubah sipeuë-peuë, leubèh gèt gata keubah keuh peuë mantong nyang gata seunang keu dônya. Saweuëb meunyoë gata keubah atra nyan nakeuh gata nyoë ureuëng nyang that jroh seureuta mulia.
  5. Meunyoë gata keuneuk peusiëp sipeuë-peuë, leubèh gèt gata peusiëp droë keu maté, Saweuëb meuhan gata peusiëp laju bak awai kon, gata keuneuk seungsara, rugoë ngon that na teulah 'oh akhé dudoë.
  6. Meunyoë gata keuneuk mita sipeuë-peuë, leubèh gèt gata mita keuh beukai keu uroë pagé. saweuëb gata han pajan pih ta teumeung keubah beukai nyan meutan gata mita.

[andam | andam nè]

  1. ^ Abdul Ghani, M. Ilyas. 2005. op cit. Hal. 39-41.
  2. ^ Ja'farian, Rasul (2003). Sejarah Islam : sejak wafat Nabi SAW hingga runtuhnya Dinasti Bani Umayah (11 - 132 H). Lentera. ISBN 979-3018-77-1. 
  3. ^ (Hayatu Muhammad, M Husain Haikal)

Neubeuet lom[andam | andam nè]

  • Hayatu Muhammad, Muhammad Husain Haikal [1]
  • Kelengkapan Tarikh Nabi Muhammad SAW, KH Munawar Chalil
  • Donner, Fred, The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981
  • Guillaume, A., The Life of Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 1955
  • Madelung, Wilferd, The Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • "G.LeviDellaVida and M.Bonner "Umar" in Encyclopedia of Islam CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 1999"
  • Previte-Orton, C. W (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Peunawôt luwa[andam | andam nè]

Gla bangsawan
Geupeudilèë lé:
Abu Bakar Ash-Shiddiq
Khulafa'ur-rasyidin
(632661)
Geugantoë lé:
Utsman bin Affan