Madinah

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Madinah
المدينة المنورة
Al Madinah Al Munawwarah
Meuseujid Nabawi

Alam

Lambang
Madinah is located in Arab Saudi
Madinah
Neuduëk Madinah Arab Saudi
Koordinat: 24°28′00″N 39°36′00″E / 24.46667°N 39.60000°E / 24.46667; 39.60000
Neugara Arab Saudi
Provinsi  Arab Saudi
Provinsi Madinah
Peumeurèntah
 • Wali Banda Abdul Aziz Bin Majid
(عبدالعزيز بن ماجد)
Luwah
 • Jeumeulah 589 km2 (227 sq mi)
Manyang 1.995 m (6,545 ft)
Populasi (2006)
 • Total 1.300.000
Da'irah watèe Watèe Standar Arab (UTC+8)
 • Musém su'um (DST) Hana (UTC+3)

Madinah atawa Madinah Al Munawwarah: مدينة رسول الله atawa المدينه, (geupeunan cit Madinatur Rasulullah, Madīnah an-Nabī) nakeuh banda utama di Arab Saudi. Nyoëkeuh banda nyang that rameè geukunjông lé ureuëng Islam. Disinan keuh Rasulullah SAW neuwafeuët ngon disinan keuh kubu neuh. Nyan nakeuh banda suci keu-2 bagi ummat Islam. Bak masa Nabi Muhammad SAW, banda nyoë jeuët keu pusat da'wah, meurunoë, ngon peumeurèntah Islam. Dari banda nyoë Islam meukeumang keu sigom tanoh Arab 'oh lheuëh nyan ban sigom dônya. Bak thôn 1 H (622 M) Nabi Muhammad SAW ngon ureuëng Islam dari Makkah ka neu Hijrah u Madinah. Ngon trôh laju keunan mandum ureuëng Islam nyang phôn-phôn that meuagama Islam keunan keu geujak meurunoë agama langsông nibak Nabi. Madinah nakeuh teumpat bak teudong lhèe boh peuneudong meuseujid nyang that utaa lam tarèh Islam. Nakeuh disinan Meuseujid Nabawi (meuseujid Nabi), Meuseujid Quba (meuseujid phôn lam Islam),[1] Meuseujid Qiblatain (meuseujid dua qiblat) di meuseujid nyan teumpat qiblat neupinah dari Yerusalem u Makkah.

Lagèe banda suci Makkah al Mukarramah u Madinah al Munawwarah meuhat nyang jeuët tamong keunan nakeuh ureuëng meuagama Islam mantong.[2][3][4] Lam agama Islam geuyakin nyang nakeuh ayat Al Qur'an nyang geupeutrôn di Madinah pih geupeubida ngon nyang geupeutrôn di Makkah.[5][6] Di Madinah keuh teudong phôn pusat meukeumang agama Islam bak masa Nabi, meusambông teuma ngon peuët droë sahabat Abu Bakar as Shiddiq, Umar bin Khattab, Utsman bin Affan ngon Ali bin Abi Thalib

"Madinah" nakeuh narit nibak bahsa Arab nyang meuareuti "banda", jameun nan banda nyan "Yatsrib" nyang dudoë geugantoë lé Nabi. Lawét nyoë, ureuëng duëk di banda nyan nakeuh 600.000 droë. Ngon banda Makkah na jeu'ôh leubèh kureuëng 340 km blah rot sibarôh. Yôh masa dilèe keu geujak dari Makkah u Madinah peureulèe watèe nyang that trép, meunyoë geujak ngon unta abéh watèe si buleuën lam meujak nyan. Jinoë meuhat cit 6 jeuëm jak rot ra'uëh tol nyang geupeugot l épeumeurntah Arab Saudi. Bak masa keurajeuën Utsmani, na ra'uëh geuritan apuy nyang meuhubông Madinah ngon Amman (Yordania) seureuta Damaskus (Syria) nyang jeuët ra'uëh nyan nibak beunagi ra'ueh geuritan apuy Istambul (Turki)-Haifa (Israel) nyang geuturi cit ngon nan Hejaz Railway. Jinoë ra'uëh nyoë hana lé ngon seutasiôn geuritan apuy Madinah ka geupeugot keu museum. Dilèe ra'uëh nyan geunguy keu mangat ureuëng bak geujak u Madinah ngon keu geujak peunuët ibadah Haji. Jinoë lam ka keumaih ra'uëh darat, banda Madinah jeuët ta teuka rot ra'uëh darat, meunyoë ngon peusawat ateuëh tujuan Madinah payah ta piyôh dilèe di Bandara King Abdul Aziz Jeddah.

Éhtisa[andam | andam nè]

Yôh masa seugolom Islam bak thôn 622 M, banda nyoë nakeuh Yatsrib, saboh banda oasis.[7] La'én nibak bansa Arab, di Yatsrib na cit ureuëng Yahudi, lam jiyakin lé ureuëng Yahudi masa nyan nakeuh Yatsrib nyan seubagoë banda nyang geujanji lé Tuhan lam kitab-kitab awaknyan keu teumpat neuduëk nabi akhé jameun. Nan banda nyan neuubah lé nabi jeuët keu Madinatun Nabiy (مدينة ٱلنبي "banda nabi") atawa Al-Madīnatul Munawwarah (المدينة ٱلمنورة "banda nyang peungeuh" atawa "banda nyang meucahya"). Madinah geupeurayeuk seubab disinan na Meuseujid Nabi ngon seujarah banda nyan nyang jeut keu nanggroë nyang tém peulindông Nabi ngon sahbat neuh ngon ummat Islam lheuh jiancam lé kawôm Quraisy Makkah. nabi wafeut di madinah ngon meukubu dimeuyub Qubah Ijô, ngon na cit disampéng Nabi dua droë sahabat nyang mulia Abu Bakar as Shiddiq ngon Umar bin Khattab, neuduëk kubu nyan nakeuh pah bak teumpat nyang jameun nakeuh rumoh Rasulullah SAW.[8]

Neuduëk banda Madinah nyan pih get that meusaneut bak mandum bideuëng, na kira-kira 190 km dari panté La'ôt Mirah ngon tanoh nyang that leuhu meubandéng ngon wilayah la'én di Jazirah Arabia, banda nyan jilingka lé gunong ngon bukét-bukét nyang manyang. Bak tarèh banda nyan nakeuh saboh kuta banda nyang meulingka, jikeuliléng ngon bintéh nyang that kong ngon teubai 30 sampoë 40 gaki (9,1-12 m) ngon manyang, banda nyan geupeudong bak abad keu-12, ngon jiapét lé meunara. Pintô tamöng banda nyan na peuët ho, salah saboh jih na pintô Babussalam atawa pintô Mesir nyang that na ceudah. di luwa bintéh banda, barat ngon tunong nakeuh binéh banda nyang na disinan rumoh-rumoh meuyub ngon lampôh peunula. Bak binéh banda nyan na cit bintéh ngon meupintô. Rab mandum banda meuseujarah nyan ka geupeuancô bak masa Keurajeuën Saudi. Banda nyoë jipuga lom lam masa nyan ngon pusat banda nakeuh di Meuseujid Nabawi.

Meusebab ngon peumeurèntah keurajeuën Saudi geutakôt keu khurafat lam masyarakat ngon ummat Islam le that ka peuneudong meuseujarah ngon jirat ureuëng Islam awai ka geupeugadoh dari banda Madinah. Le that pusaka keuneubah seujarah masa nabi ngon masa-masa lheuëh nyan ka geu peuancô lé peumeurèntah Keurajeuën Saudi.

Tarèh[andam | andam nè]

Batèe meutuléh pusaka banda madinah yôh mantong nan Yatsrib

Seugohlom Islam[andam | andam nè]

Bak masa seugolom Islam banda nyoë nadimeuyub nan jameun "Yastrib", tarèh Yatsrib nyan meuphôn bak abad keu-6 SM. Nan nyan na leumah bak ceunatat bansa Asyur ngon nan Iastribu.[7] Bak masa Ptolomy oasis nyan jipeunan seubagoë Lathrippa.

Peungarôh Yahudi[andam | andam nè]

Kawôm Yahudi teuka u Yatsrib bak abad keu-2 Masehi. Bak masa phôn Islam di Madinah, na lhèe boh kawôm Yahudi di banda nyan: Bani Qaynuqa', Bani Qurayzah ngon Bani Nadzir.[9] La'én nibak awak Yahudi, na cit keunan bansa Arab Bani 'Aus ngon Bani Khazraj, dua kawôm nyan teuka dari Yaman ngon geumeuduëk disinan seubagoë bansa nyang tundk keu Yahudi. Menan pih dudoë peungarôh dua Bani nyan ka leubèh rayeuëk bak kuwasa nanggroë Madinah. Lam peungarôh Yahudi nyan Bani 'Aus ngon Bani Khazraj pih gabuëk ngon na jimeuprang lam peuët go tunjak prang. Lam prang keuneulheuëh Bani Aus ka talô dari Bani Khazraj, ka meusampoë ngon talô nyan Bani Khazraj ka jeuët keu peumimpin nanggroë. Meunan pih nyang gabuëk antara 'Aus ngon Khazraj nyan hana cit reuda, sidroë ureuëng nyang jeuët keu ulèe kawôm Bani Khazraj nakeuh Abdullah bin Ubay nyang lé ureuëng Yatsrib geuneuk peuduëk keu raja nanggroë. Meunan geukalon lé ureuëng Yatsrib nyan Abdullah bin Ubay hana jeuët jih bak jipeudamèe nanggroë nibak gabuëk 'Aus ngon Khazraj seureuta toë that hubôngan bin Ubay ngon awak Yahudi, jeuët keu seubabnyan padum-padum droë ureuëng peunténg Bani 'Aus ngon Khazraj ka geujak u Makkah, geujak meurumpok ngon Nabi Muhammad di 'Aqabah ngon geupeugot janji seutia disinan keu nabi ngon keu agama Islam. Lé ureuëng Yatsrib yôh nyan nakeuh that geuharap Nabi Muhammad SAW keuh nyang jeuët peudamèe lom antara dua kawôm nyang meusitrèe nyan.

Masa Teuka Nabi Muhammad SAW[andam | andam nè]

Meuseujid Quba, meuseujid phôn lam agama Islam

Bak thôn 622 M / 1 H, Nabi Muhammad SAW ngon na 70 droë ureuëng Islam dari Makkah teuka keunan u Yatsrib. Lam keujadian Hijrah nabi nyan ureuëng Islam dari Makkah geupeunan Muhajirin ngon ureuëng Madinah nyang teurimong kawôm Muhajirin geupeunan Anshar. Keujadian nyan brat that ka jeuët keu meu-ubah kri agama Islam bak meukeumang jih yôh masa phôn. Meunan trôh Nabi u Yatsrib laju keuh neupeugot damèe antara 'Aus ngon Khazraj, ngon meukawan-kawan ureuëng Madinah nyan dari 'Aus, Khazraj ngon Yahudi nyang geutamong lam agama Islam atawa meu-ikat janji sipakat keu meujaga dameè di Yatsrib. Nabi Muhammad geuangkèe jeuët keu peumimpin nanggroë, ngon sigra lé Nabi neu ubah nan naggroë dari Yatsrib jeuët keu Madinah.

Lam siplôh thôn lheuëh neuduëk Nabi Muhammad SAW di Madinah ka neupeudong lé droëneuhnyan saboh banda nyang that meuatô. Ngon ka neupuga banda nyan seubagoë da'irah nyang geuteuka keunan mandum bansa Arab yôh nyan keu dijak meurumpok Nabi ngon geumeuiman bak agama nyang neumée lé Nabi. Banda nyan kajeuët keu da'irah nyang meuheut keuneuk dijak prang lé kawôm kaphé nyang mantong han jiteurimong agama islam jeuët keu agama meugantoë agama endatu awaknyan. Dari banda nyan cit lé Nabi ka neuatô teuntra keujak prang Makkah bak thôn keu 8 Hijriyah. Ngon lheuëh neureubôt Makkah, Nabi ka neuriwang keunan u Madinah lom ngon neuwafeuët di teumpat nyang that mulia nyan. Teutap keuh meupadum thôn lheuëh wafeuët Nabi Muhammad SAW banda nyan jeuët keu teumpat neuduëk padum-padum droë sahbat nyang neumat kuwasa seubagoë khalifah.

Di meuyub lhèe droë khalifah, Abu Bakar, Umar, ngon Utsman, Madinah nakeuh nang nanggroë Islam nyang meukeumang ngon that rijang. Bak masa khalifah Utsman teuka saboh peureuté ureuëng Arab dari Meusé nyang hana jiseunang keu Utsman dijak seurang Madinah ngon jipoh Utsman bak thôn 656 M/ 35 H. Ali, khalifah nyang keupeuët ka neupinah pusat khalifah dari Madinah u Kufah di Irak. Lheuëh nyan nakeuh Madinah nyan tinggai cit seubagoë pusat agama kon pusat peumeurintah Islam.

Masa rhet lam jaroë Bani Saud[andam | andam nè]

Madinah thôn 1890 M
Madinah ngon bintéh teubai meulingka banda

Nibak awai abad keu-20, lam Prang dônya keu-I, Madinah ka jikeupông lam saboh keumeupông nyang that trép bak tarèh banda nyan. Madinah nakeuh banda Keurajeuën Utsmani nyang meuatô disinan nakeuh bak jaroë Bani Hasyim seubagoë syarif atawa amir dari Makkah. Fakhri Pasha nakeuh gubernur Utsmani dari Madinah. Ali bin Hussein, Syarif Makkah ngon peumimpin Bani Hasyim, ke meubeurontak keu khalifah di Konstantinopel (Istanbul) ngon geumeudong blah rot Inggréh. Madinah geukeupông lé teuntra Syarif, meunan pih Fakhri han geutém theun talô lam masa jikeupông nyan dari thôn 1916 sampoë uroë 10 buleuën Sa thôn 1919. Gobnyan han geutém meunyeurah lam 72 uroë pantang teumimbak nyang jipeunan geuncatan seunjata Moudros sampoë gobnyan dudoë jidrop lé teuntra droë geuh nyang meubalék keu syarif.[10] Keu bèk jicok ngon jipeuhancô pusaka Islam disinan, lé gubernur Fakhri ka neukirém padum-padum macam pusaka nyang that meuyum keudéh u Istambul ngon cara rahsia.[11]

Bak thôn 1920, lé Inggréh kajipeugah Madinah nyan leubèh bibeuëh nibak Makkah.[12] Lheuëh Prang Dônya keu phôn, lé kawôm Bani Hasyim ka jiangkèe Sayyid Husen bin Ali keu raja dari Hijaz nyang meurdéka. Ngon sigra laju lheuëh nyan, bak thôn 1924, gobnyan ka jipeutalô lom lé kawôm Wangsa Saud, nyang jipeusapat Madinah ngon ban sigom Hijaz lam keurajeuën modern Arab Saudi.

Madinah jinoë[andam | andam nè]

Uroë nyoë, Madinah la'én nibak jeuët keu teumpat keuduwa paléng peunténg bak ziarah ummat Islam lheuëh Makkah, nakeuh banda nyan jeuët keu nang nanggroë Provinsi blah rot barat Arab Saudi, saboh provinsi nyang that peunténg keu keurajeuën nyan.

'An uroë nyoë bak pusat banda tuha Madinah nyang geupeuhareuëm teuka ureuëng kaphé, Madinah nakeuh banda nyang jimeuduëk lé macam bansa ngon macam agama (Islam ngon kon islam): lagèe nyang teuka nibak: nanggroë-nanggroë Arab nyang la'én (Meusé, Yordania, Libanon, ngon la'én-la'én, Asia Tunong (Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, ngon la'én-la'én), Indônèsia ngon Filipina.

Ekonomi[andam | andam nè]

Lam seujarah, Madinah that meuceuhu ngon hasé nibak Kurma. Kurma Madinah nakeuh nyang that mangat didônya, ngon le that bagoë kurma nyang jitimoh ngon meuboh disinan. Bak thôn 1920 mantong na leubèh kureuëng 139 macam kurma nyang na ban sigom Madinah.[13] Madinah geuthèe cit keu hasé nibak macam-macam peunula gulèe.[14]

Meuseujid Nabi bak watèe sinja

Ne[andam | andam nè]

  1. ^ "Masjid Quba' - Hajj". Saudi Arabia: Hajinformation.com. http://www.hajinformation.com/main/h2022.htm. Retrieved 2013-03-26. 
  2. ^ Esposito, John L. (2011). What everyone needs to know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 25. "Mecca, like Medina, is closed to non-Muslims" 
  3. ^ Sandra Mackey's account of her attempt to enter Mecca in Mackey, Sandra (1987). The Saudis: Inside the Desert Kingdom. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 63–64. ISBN 0-393-32417-6. 
  4. ^ Cuddihy, Kathy (2001). An A To Z Of Places And Things Saudi. Stacey International. p. 148. ISBN 1-900988-40-2. 
  5. ^ Historical value of the Qur'ân and the Ḥadith A.M. Khan
  6. ^ What Everyone Should Know About the Qur'an Ahmed Al-Laithy
  7. ^ a b http://www.livius.org/ct-cz/cyrus_I/babylon02.html#Chronicle%20of%20Nabonidus Chronicle of Nabonidus
  8. ^ However, an article in Aramco World by John Anthony states: "To the perhaps parochial Muslims of North Africa in fact the sanctity of Kairouan is second only to Mecca among all cities of the world." Saudi Aramco’s bimonthly magazine's goal is to broaden knowledge of the cultures, history and geography of the Arab and Muslim worlds and their connections with the West; pages 30-36 of the January/February 1967 print edition The Fourth Holy City
  9. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia Medina
  10. ^ Peters, Francis (1994). Mecca: A Literary History of the Muslim Holy Land. PP376-377. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03267-X
  11. ^ Mohmed Reda Bhacker (1992). Trade and Empire in Muscat and Zanzibar: Roots of British Domination. Routledge Chapman & Hall. P63: Following the plunder of Medina in 1810 'when the Prophet's tomb was opened and its jewels and relics sold and distributed among the Wahhabi soldiery'. P122: the Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II was at last moved to act against such outrage.
  12. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 103. 
  13. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 83. 
  14. ^ Prothero, G.W. (1920). Arabia. London: H.M. Stationary Office. p. 86.