Dubai

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Dubai
دبي
—  Imarat  —
Imarat Dubai

Bendera
Location of Dubai in the UAE
Koordinat: 25°15′00″N 55°18′00″E / 25.25000°N 55.30000°E / 25.25000; 55.30000
Neugara  Uni Emirat Arab
Emirat 'Alam Dubai Dubai
Meurdeka nibak Inggréh Uroë 2 buleuën Duwa Blah thôn 1971
Ibu kota Dubai
Borough
Peumeurèntah
 • Jeunèh Monarki Konstitusi[1]
Luwah[2]
 • Jeumeulah 4.114 km2 (1,588 sq mi)
Populasi (1 January 2013)[3]
 • Total 2.106.177
 • Rapat ureueng duek 463,17/km2 (119,960/sq mi)
 • Nationality 42,3% Indian
17% Emirat
13,3% Pakistan
7,5% Bangladesh
9,1% Arab bansa la'én
10,8%
Da'irah watèe UAE standard time (UTC+4)
Situs web Dubai Emirate
Dubai Municipality

Dubai (lam bahsa Arab: دبيّ‎, Dubaīy) nakeuh saboh nibak tujôh boh emirat ngon banda nyang that padat di Uni Emirat Arab (UEA). Neuduëk jih na di ban sipanyang panté tunong Lhôk Parsi di Jazirah Arab. Banda Dubai meujan geukheun ngon Dubai City keu peubida banda nyan nibak emirat.

Lam seunurat nyang meutuléh geupeunyata keuna banda nyoë na trép 150 thôn seugohlom teudong UEA. Dubai geuweuëk kuwasa hukôm, siyasat, militè seureuta bhaih péng ngon emirat la'én lam lingka federal, adak pih meunan tiëp-tiëp emirat nyan na kuwasa peunoh ateuëh padum-padum boh kuwasa lagèe peudong hukôm sipil ngon bak keunalon ngon seubarô fasilitas lokal. Dubai na populasi nyang paléng rayeuk ngon nakeuh jeuët keu emirat nyang paléng rayeuk keuduwa ban luwahjih, lheuh Abu Dhabi.[4] Dubai ngon Abu Dhabi nakeuh saboh-sabohjih nibak duwa emirat nyang na hak veto bak masalah-masalah peunténg lam peukara nasional Diwan Nasional Federal neugara nyan.[5] Dubai ka geupimpén lé wangsa Al Maktoum phôn nibak 1833. Peumimpén jinoë nakeuh, Muhammad bin Rashid Al Maktoum, nyang droëneuhnyan neumat cit kuwasa seubagoë Peudana Meuntroë ngon Waki Prèsidèn UEA.

Hasé nanggroë emirat teuka nibak meuniaga, real estate ngon bideuëng bank[6]. Hasé nanggroë nibak minyeuk ngon gaih alam na cit jeuët keu wasé kureuëng nibak 6% (2006)[7] lam ekonomi Dubai nakeuh US$ 37 miliar (2005).[8] Real estate ngon konstruksi, geusumbang 22.6% keu ekonomi thôn 2005, seugohlom musém konstruksi lam skala rayeuk nyang na 'an jinoë[9]. Dubai ka geutarék heut dônya rot keurija real estat nyang that maju[10] ngon lam bideuëng grak tubôh. Peukara nyan jeuët keu galak that ureuëng geujak ngon geuduëk di banda nyan, lheuëh nyan lam peukara hak asasi manusia nyan pih ka jroh that di Dubai, meuseubab ngon ramé that ureuëng keurija nibak bansa ngon neugara la'én nyang dijak keunan[11].

Asai nan[andam | andam nè]

Hat thôn 1820, Dubai mantong geukheun nan ngon Al Wasl lé ahli tarèh Inggrèh. Meuhat teuma, lam padum-padum boh seunurat na nyang geukheun tarèh reusam nanggroë Uni Emirat Arab nyang teuka nibak adat di wilayah nyan keu geutuléh ngon geupusaka calitra ra'yat ngon hikayat. Asay linguistik narit Dubai mantong jeuët keu dakwa-dawi, padum-padum droë ureuëng geupeucaya nyan teuka nibak bahsa Parsi, teuma nyang ladôm geupatéh nyan nibak bahsa Arab. Jikheun lé Fedel Handhal, ureuëng nyang that dawôkj jimeurunoë tarèh ngon reusam UEA, narit Dubai that toë teuka nibak narit Daba (derivatif dari Yadub), nyang meuareuti meu-'euë njalar; narit nyan jeuët keu tanda nibak ceureulông Dubai nyang jitamong banlaku meu-'euë u darat nanggroë nyan[12]. Narit nan Dubai nyang phôn that meutuléh nakeuh bak thôn 1095, lam "Book of Geography" lé ahli èleumèe bumoë Andalusia-Arab Abu Abdullah al-Bakri. Ureuëng meukat permata Venesia Gaspero Balbi ka jikunjông wilayah nyoë bak 1580 ngon jikheun (Dibei)[13] Seunurat nyang geutuléh keu dokumentasi banda Dubai meubarô na lheuëh thôn 1799[14].

Tarèh[andam | andam nè]

Distrik Al Ras di Deira, Dubai hat thôn 1960.

That bacut nyang geuthèe lam bhaih reusam seugolom Islam di teunggara jazirah Arab, meuhat le that banda jameun di wilayah nyan nyang jeuët keu pusat meuniaga antara dônya Timu ngon Barat. Euncit nibak rawa bangka jameun, nyang na umu 7.000 tahun, geuteumèe bak watèe geupuga parék meuyub tanoh toë Dubai Internet City. Wilayah nyë jitôp le anoë lam keunira 5.000 thôn nyang ka leupah garéh panté jisurôt dari darat, jeuët keu da'irah garéh panté banda nyan jinoë[15] Sebelum Islam, jameun ureuëg duëk da'irah nyan jiseumah Bajir (atawa Bajar).[16] Keurajeuën Bizantium ngon Sassaniyah nakeuh nyang po kuwasa rayeuk bak masa nya, ngon Sasaniyah nyang mat kuwasa lam neuweuëk rayeuek wilayah. Lheuh teuka Islam keunan, Khalifah Umayyah, dari dônya Islam timu, laju geupeuluwah wilayah u teunggara Jazirah Arab ngon geupeutalô kawôm Sassaniyah. Lam geukuëh tanoh mita pusaka nanggroë lé Dubai Museum bak wilayah Al-Jumayra (Jumairah) ka geupeubeuna na padum-padum macam teuninggai jameun dari masa Umayyah[13].

Nibak awai abad keu-19, kuru Al Abu Falasa (Wangsa Al-Falasi) dari kuru Bani Yas geupeudong Dubai, nyang jeuët keu wilayah Abu Dhabi sampoë 'an 1833.[17] Uroë 8 buleuën Sa thôn 1820, shèikh Dubai ngon shèikh la'én di da'irah nyan geubôh tandajaroë "Janji Damèe La'ôt Umum" ngon peumeurèntah Britania.[15] Teuma, thôn 1833, wangsa Al Maktoum (turônan Wangsa Al-Falasi) dari sukèe Bani Yas ka geuwèh nibak gampông Abu Dhabi ngon geucok aléh Dubai dari klan Abu Falasa ngon hana meulawan saagai [17]. Dubai na dimeuyub lindông Inggréh lam "Meujanji Eksklusif" bak thôn 1892, ngon meuakô keu meulindông Dubai nibak jiprang lé Keurajeuën Turuki Utsmani[17] Duwa musibah rayeuk teuka di banda nyan bak hat teungoh thôn 1800. Phôn, thôn 1841, saboh waba sakét seu'uëm na lam gampông-gampông di Bur Dubai, nyang jeuët keu teupaksa ureuëng duëk geuminah u timu di Deira. Lheuëh nyan, thôn 1894, keujadian musibah tutông di Deira, nyang jipeuangoh le that rumoh[18]. Teuma lheuëh nyan, neuduëk banda nyan nyang that meusaneut jeuët keu galak that ureuëng meuniaga ngon ureuëng meukat dari ban saboh wilayah nyan. Lé Emir Dubai keu tarék ureuëng meukat ka geupeutrôn pajak meuniaga, ngon laju teuka keunan dum ureuëng meukat dari Sharjah ngon Banda Lengeh, nyang jeuët keu huböngan dagang utama bak masa nyan[18][19].

Kuta Al Fahidi, jipeudong bak thôn 1799, nakeuh peuneudong nyang paléng tuha di Dubai.[20]

Neuduëk bumoë Dubai nyang toë that ngon India kajeuët da'irahnyan seubagoë neuduëk nyang that peunténg. Banda Dubai nakeuh banda la'ôt dagang nyang peunténg khusuihjih keu meuhubông ngon India, sampoë keuh ramèe that ureuëng India nyang geumeuduëk dibanda nyan. Dubai geuturi ngon ekspor batèe mulia sampoë 'an hat thôn 1930. Tapi, industri batèe mulia Dubai keunong ngon akibat dari Prang Dônya I, nyang meuikôt ngon Depresi Rayeuk hat thôn 1920. Akibatjih, banda nyoe meurasa jiwèh that ramèe ureuëng duëk u wilayah la'én Lhôk Parsi[15]. Lheuëh teudong, Dubai ka meuseuliséh ngon Abu Dhabi. Thôn 1947, meurupah ceuë antara Dubai dan Abu Dhabi di da'irah barôh ceuë raseumijih, meuubah jeuët keu prang antara duwa emiratnyan[21]. Dudoë jipeuseuleusoë peukara Arbitrasi nyan lé Inggréh ngon jipeugot pageuë bak ceuë nyang meubeunteuëng dari panté di Ras Hassian ngon nyan keuh meuhasé piyôh timbak-teumimbak[22]. Teuma lom, karu duwa emiratnyan meusambông lom sampoë lheuëh teudong UEA; bak thôn 1979 saboh meujanji raseumi meuhasé keu peuglah timbak-teumimbak ngon meurupah ceuë antara duwa emiratnyan[23]. Listrék, talipun ngon banda udara geupeudong di Dubai hat thôn 1950, bak watèe Inggréh jipinah kantô administratif lokaljih dari Sharjah keu Dubai.[24] Thôn 1966 banda nyoë meugabông ngon neugara Qatar nyang barô meurdèka keu peuteutap mata péng barô, Riyal Qatar/Dubai, lheuëh deflasi rupee Teluk[14].

Peunawôt luwa[andam | andam nè]

Ne[andam | andam nè]

  1. ^ "UAE Constitution". Helplinelaw.com. http://www.helplinelaw.com/law/uae/constitution/constitution01.php. Retrieved 21 July 2008. 
  2. ^ Area of "Dubai emirate", includes artificial islands.
  3. ^ "Dubai: Profile of geographical entity including name variants. World Gazetteer.
  4. ^ "United Arab Emirates: metropolitan areas". Archived from the original on 2012-12-04. http://archive.is/APGC. 
  5. ^ The Government and Politics of the Middle East and North Africa. D Long, B Reich. p.157
  6. ^ An Economic Profile of Dubai Dubai Healthcare City. 2000
  7. ^ Oil share dips in Dubai GDP AMEInfo (9 June 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
  8. ^ Dubai economy set to treble by 2015 ArabianBusiness.com (3 February 2007) Retrieved on 15 October 2007.
  9. ^ "Dubai diversifies out of oil". AMEInfo. 2005-09-07. http://www.ameinfo.com/66981.html. Retrieved 2008-08-12. 
  10. ^ Dubai map with upcoming freehold developments
  11. ^ Mike Davis (2006) Fear and money in Dubai, New Left Review 41, pp. 47-68
  12. ^ How did Dubai, Abu Dhabi and other cities get their names? Experts reveal all. UAEInteract.com. 10 March 2007
  13. ^ a b The Coming of Islam and the Islamic Period in the UAE. King, Geoffrey R.
  14. ^ a b Economic and Environmental Impacts of tourism on Dubai and Hawaii. McEachern, Nadeau, et al
  15. ^ a b c History and Traditions of the UAE
  16. ^ History and Background of the UAE
  17. ^ a b c Country ProBerkas: United Arab Emirates. United States Library of Congress
  18. ^ a b Modernity and tradition in Dubai architecture. Karim, Luiza
  19. ^ THE EMIRATES OF ABU DHABI AND DUBAI:CONTRASTING ROLES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. Davidson, Christopher. March 2007
  20. ^ "The old...turned new". Gulf News. 2001-10-25. http://archive.gulfnews.com/articles/01/10/25/30288.html. Retrieved 2008-03-15. 
  21. ^ The UAE: Internal Boundaries And The Boundary With Oman. Archived Editions. Walker, J.
  22. ^ The Middle East and North Africa. Schofield, C. p 175
  23. ^ Dubai. Carter, T and Dunston, L. Lonely Planet Publications
  24. ^ Dubai City. Melamid, Alexander. Jul 1989